As seen in the example above, double hyphens may also be used like so: Again, note the use of the double hyphens in the example above. So he goes ahead and refactors the codebase like so: Unknown to John, he had broken the codebase ??? Systematic CSS shares many of the principles and ideas you can find in OOCSS, BEM, SMACSS, SUIT CSS, and other CSS methodologies. Using the BEM naming convention, element class names are derived by adding two underscores, followed by the element name. During my researches on this subject, I have identified two popular naming conventions notably the OOCSS and BEM. Therfore, difficult to maintain and to evolve with the harmful effects on the performance of the software hence the importance of optimizing our code in other words, a code permeating good practices. February 17, 2016 by Jessica Lavoie. Basically, the rel attribute defines the relationship that the linked resource has to the document from which it’s referenced. Allow rewriting the styles in a modular way (Atomic Design-ish) Prevent side-effects when editing a given component ; Use semantic CSS naming … Use flexible/relative units For maximum flexibility over the widest possible range of devices, it is a good idea to size containers, padding, etc. Block names correspond to their directores. Systematic CSS shares many of the principles and ideas you can find in OOCSS, BEM, SMACSS, SUIT CSS, and other CSS methodologies. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that focuses on creating reusable objects and establishing relationships between them, as opposed to procedural programming that organizes the code into procedures (routines, subroutines, or functions). There exists modifiers of blocks and the element modifiers. Fowler, Martin. You do not need to write comments to say color: red will give a red color. By definition, data attributes are used to store custom data. Ordinarily, when building web stuff, it's a common pattern to split up files in a project by technology type. BEM gives everyone on a project a declarative syntax they can share. What if we had stick-men of different head sizes? Lisibility: Class names are logical and intuitive, and every member of the team knows what that element does on the website. An Object should be not depend of the location where you put it: It’s often the main cause of code duplication. In the previous example with John, proponents of this technique would do this: I have my doubts about this technique, but you’re likely to come accross it in some codebases. The blocks and elements have to each other have a unique name, which will be used as a CSS class, The CSS selectors don't have to use the HTML elements (not of footer div), Cascades in CSS selectors should be avoided ( not of .foo > .bar). Generally, there are 3 problems that CSS naming conventions try to solve: Have you ever seen class names written like this: BEM attempts to divide the overall user interface into small reusable components. Writing a code is not as easy as it appears. They may be seen as child components, i.e. To prevent cases like this, developers have come up with different strategies. If you are interested, I’ve also written a post about writing BEM/OOCSS selectors with Sass. July 14. Naming things is never easy and the nomenclature of classes and id attributes in CSS is no exception. SUIT CSS plays well with React, Ember, Angular, and other component-based approaches to UI development. Before writing a line code, most often developers establish coding standards that they will follow in order to realise the project on which they want to work. Create your free account to unlock your custom reading experience. Variables are generally used for one property, like font-size, there are very few variables that are able to be used in different contexts. Developed by the team at Yandex, its goal is to help developers better understand the relationship between the HTML and CSS … The key points are: One block— one directory. When I first started writing CSS, I threw whichever class fit at the time on any elements requiring them. Your coding standards or CSS style guide refers to the way your team has agreed on writing CSS. February 17, 2016 by Jessica Lavoie. Naming conventions ultimately come down to personal preference, but you have to imagine that someone at some point will be looking at your work so it needs to be “legible”. If you write a lot of JavaScript, then writing variables in camel case is common practice. Use tabs, not spaces, to indent each property. That could increase considerably the time of realisation projects. CSS Naming Conventions. Put the class name at the lowest possible level. Get started, freeCodeCamp is a donor-supported tax-exempt 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization (United States Federal Tax Identification Number: 82-0779546). CSS File Naming Conventions . I don’t use this technique myself, but I have seen people do. Browsers organize CSS classes in a table of the global hash, but it would be too expensive to create subtables for descendants at the level of each HTML element. Builder.com columnist Michael Meadhra shares his thoughts on emerging naming conventions. What if the stick-man was modified and we could have a blue or a red stick- man? Naming conventions can be considered as an advanced concept in CSS therefore we'll … In my experience, this comes as a result of not taking the time to learn CSS. Systematic CSS is meant to be a simpler alterative to existing CSS methodologies: There are fewer naming-conventions to remember, and the class-naming convention is intended to be more intuitive. For boolean modifiers, the value is not included in the name. Teams have different approaches to writing CSS selectors. The SUIT CSS naming convention helps to scope component CSS and make your widgets render more predictably. However, as you write more CSS, you quickly see one big downside. In most cases, this will prevent you from having to deal with CSS-specific conflicts. Performance: The performance concern more particularly the web application. Many companies have shared the way they do it (this article from CSS-Tricks has a great compilation: CSS Style Guides). Some teams use hyphen delimiters, while others prefer to use the more structured naming convention called BEM. Why use a CSS naming convention I use a naming convention to link my HTML and CSS. The Block, Element, Modifier methodology (commonly referred to as BEM) is a popular naming convention for classes in HTML and CSS. Then we can create a mixin and the follow classes : We just gained readability and refactored our code to avoid repetition. When you work on a small sized project you might not give a priority to your selector names or how your project is structured but if by any chance the project becomes bigger than you expect then you will have to keep track of your selectors and using a naming convention can make this easy. // Correct.some-class { font-weight: 10em} // Wrong.some-class { fontWeight: 10em} The BEM Naming Convention. If your website will use multiple CSS files, name the style sheets after their function so it is clear exactly what the purpose of each file is. So, they’re on the same page. Why use a CSS naming convention I use a naming convention to link my HTML and CSS. Edit #1: As mentioned by some amazing people in the comment section, if people use the ‘rel’ attribute, then it’s perhaps okay to use data attributes in certain cases. The Block, Element, Modifier methodology (commonly referred to as BEM) is a popular naming convention for classes in HTML and CSS. Stickler is a powerful tool which allows a developer to respect the standards of coding established before the realisation of a project by himself or by his work team. Take the class author; on a standard blog, this could mean one of a few things: an archive of posts by a single author, an author’s name in the meta information, or, an author’s biography. The head , feet, and arms are all elements within the component. February 18, 2020. For example, you might have multiple blocks and you need to add a wrapper class to style the positioning of those blocks. But, if you’re using a CSS trick that is less obvious, feel free to write a comment. CSS itself doesn't have much in the way of in-built organisation, therefore you need to do the work to create consistency and rules around how you write CSS. Developed by the team at Yandex, its goal is to help developers better understand the relationship between the HTML and CSS in a given project. CSS class is formed as block’s or element’s name plus two dashes: .block--mod or .block__elem--mod and .block--color-black with .block--color-red. Personally, I tend to use only hyphen delimeter class names for simple projects, and BEM for more involved user interfaces. For instance, the stick-man has a head, two gorgeous arms, and feet. Are you unclear on BEM best practices for the naming conventions of wrapper and container CSS classes?. Home Naming Conventions in HTML Class and ID Names When giving an element an id or class, give it a descriptive name, such as main-heading or announcements. ☹️ — Lea Verou (@LeaVerou) October 14, 2018 The CSS naming conventions used in BEM can also be applied to your project’s directory and file structure . For example size variables @size-small. The element name is separated from the block name by a double underscore ( __ ). My mind is on CSS quite a bit these days. When I began working for reinteractive, one of the first things I had to learn was the way we name things. While a lot of web developers try to NOT write JavaScript comments or stick to a few, I think you should write more CSS comments. Web builders create CSS class and id names to identify divs and other page elements for formatting. It’s neither a preprocessor nor even a new language, but rather a code philosophy. Naming. Naming conventions differ from place to place but, luckily, the reinteractive way was very similar to the one I was already using. 2009. "Naming conventions for instance, local and parameter variables." Accessed 2019-02-04. gbjbaanb. 알림: 한국인 독자분들을 위해 본 기사는 한국어로 번역되었으며, 한국어 버전은 여기에서 보실 수 있습니다. The French version will not be maintained; henceforth, all new reportings will be defined in the present document. Following these guidelines are a great way to … So … Systematic CSS is meant to be a simpler alterative to existing CSS methodologies: There are fewer naming-conventions to remember, and the class-naming convention is intended to be more intuitive. Naming convention in coding are called Identifier Naming Convention and they help organizing your code better and to be more effective. Naming conventions ultimately come down to personal preference, but you have to imagine that someone at some point will be looking at your work so it needs to be “legible”. Utility classes tie your markup to presentation. wasn't already enough of a testing ground.). CSS Naming Conventions. In the real world, this ‘block’ could represent a site navigation, header, footer, or any other block of design. To illustrate by way of example, take a look at Example 1 which uses a presentational naming convention.Example 1: A presentational layout. "TwoHardThings." The Solution: CSS Naming Conventions. The web community has also developed various tools and approaches that can help you to manage larger CSS projects. Good! This is used to denote a modifier. It’s important to keep in your mind that all selector has to be declared with the less of specificity as possible. The specificity determines what CSS rule is to apply by the navigator. At Shopify, I'm jumping into projects that already well under way.As a result, it's been a great way to look at what I wrote in SMACSS and see how applicable it is to yet another project. As they may be helpful for you to investigate, and you are likely to come across these things when working with other people, we've included a short guide to some of these. Here are a few naming conventions that will save you a bit of stress and countless hours down the line. /*BAD! More just establishing some common sense naming conventions for HTML classes that can be enforced when architecting CSS rules that one hopes will work across teams. Naming conventions in CSS are hugely useful in making your code more strict, more transparent, and more informative. Also, it is consistent with the CSS property names. The utility classes, sometimes called helpers, are simple and reusable CSS class selectors that apply a certain and clear rule in your design system.For example you may think about the well known .float-right, .list-unstyled, .clearfix or .visually-hidden utilities. What makes up a page or a web application can always be stored in an arborescence of blocks, Elements and modifiers. The cutting of the code into files enables to navigate easily when we have to extend, modify or create new declarations. This is a pretty standard CSS naming convention. CSS Naming Conventions. We spend more time reading our code rather than writing it because we always look for the element that we can modify, improve or just to remember ourself how this or that element works. Put the class name at the lowest possible level. Object oriented CSS was proposed by web developer Nicole Sullivan in 2008. The methodology BEM has three essential rules: The official website takes care to specify that only the concepts count, the syntax remaining free. I have always asked myself about the good practices and how I could make my code more readable, understandable, easy to maintain and to be handled by other developers. Good code is commented, adheres to industry best practices, and allows for others to easily understand its . This is a pretty standard CSS naming convention. Accessed 2019-02-04. Naming a block and then naming any child elements in relation to that block created a namespace for the child elements. The reader wishing to deepen will then read the wiki of the framework OOCSS. What naming scheme do you use for color variables? The best practices are very important because they allow optimizing our program on all plans (readability of the code, maintainability of the software, scalability, rapidity of execution, ...). Remember, the element is a child component within the overall containing block. BEM is the acronym of Block, Element, Modifier and all the methodology of the naming hold on in these three words. ETL. With the CSS in core, it is important to retain a high degree of legibility. it exists other good practices of naming. He is handed over an HTML code that looks like this: John has read this article and realizes this may not be the best way to name things in CSS. Blocks, elements and modifiers are split into separate files, allowing us to include them only when needed. If you've ever worked with the bootstrap, you probably noticed by reading this section that the bootstrap team uses this approach heavily. Overall blocks of design rarely live in isolation. Don't repeat yourself (DRY, or sometimes do not repeat yourself) is a principle of software development aimed at reducing repetition of codes or software patterns. With Yahoo!, I (and a team of people) were writing the CSS from scratch … This time the element has been modified. Using BEM, modifier class names are derived by adding two hyphens followed by the element name. The key points are: One block— one directory. The .stick-man represents the Block , .stick-man__head the element. I have heard lots of developers say they hate CSS. (As if Yahoo! The choice of cutting is free depending on what appears for you most pertinent. In example with CSS there you build your styles based upon of what you want to support within your code or how … Also, it is consistent with the CSS property names. Following the practice explained above, an ideal class name for this component would be stick-man. I've tried all of the following, and I have yet to succeed at writing CSS that works well with any color scheme. We have used delimited strings here. Consider this basic folder structure: my … This includes the best practices on writing code, like formatting, naming, and syntax conventions. The stick-man represents a component, such as a block of design. An element is a part of block. Take a look at how well commented the Bootstrap source code is. Expected outcomes. The last example showed the parent component being modified. For instance, if you want to put a class name ‘title-red’, it might look meaningless when you happen to change the color of the title. These are modifications of the component in question. "CSS Naming Conventions that Will Save You Hours of Debugging." Naming things correctly in CSS will make your code easier to read and maintain. Naming Convention in CSS. Add two blank lines between sections and one blank line between blocks in a section. Source: Raphael Goetter (french article). I have always asked myself about the good practices and how I could make my code more readable, understandable, easy to maintain and to be handled by other developers. Why? The web is a big place with lots of different “methods” for solving the same problem. This enables subsequent contributors to have a clear understanding of the flow of the document. Always use the class name directly on the HTML element you want to style, even if seems to cost an extra effort. Name-spacing the CSS of a module creates a form of isolation. Naming things is hard. Some teams use hyphen delimiters, while others prefer to use the more structured naming convention called BEM. The problem is that this form of naming isn’t well-suited to CSS. Naming conventions ultimately come down to personal preference, but you have to imagine that someone at some point will be looking at your work so it needs to be “legible”. Verbose: The nomenclature of BEM is a little bit verbose. So what are good practices in CSS? It is arguably more readable. Scope styles. It is arguably more readable. Naming conventions in CSS are hugely useful in making your code more strict, more transparent, and more informative. It impacts how classes will be named. To know what selector does, just by looking at its name ; To have an idea where selector can … Somewhere in the JavaScript code, there was a relationship with the previous class name, siteNavigation: So, with the change in the class name, the nav variable became null. Stickler is used by a wide community and it’s quite flexible in his configuration. OOCSS doesn’t give rules of the clear and firm building, and the past time to factorize the appearance can very often exceed the gain of the reuse. That’s basically how the BEM naming convention works. The sole purpose of the convention is to make a basic standardization of how you scructure your code and it's proven to be good. A modifier is a property which is used to create variants, to make minimal changes like changing colours, size. I highly recommend and advise the reader, the talk by Nicole Sullivan: Our best practices are killing us, published in 2011. 2014. It has allowed to several integrators to better understand OOCSS and to start using this naming concept. Our mission: to help people learn to code for free. Get the free ebook. The is a hierarchy, not necessarily intuitive in the order of application CSS rules. Some teams use hyphen delimiters, while others prefer to … The problem with bad naming is that it is then difficult to find yourself in its code, so it’s important to find a particular convention to organize yourself well. This has nothing to do with naming conventions, but it will save you some time too. freeCodeCamp's open source curriculum has helped more than 40,000 people get jobs as developers. Good code is commented, adheres to industry best practices, and allows for others to easily understand its purpose. CSS cascade, when there are many of them, this creates fluidity problems, especially on the animated pages of Web applications. Software Engineering, StackExchange, November 30. CSS and LESS variables are set to follow a naming logic, going from repeating property to application usage to possible modifier or in short property-application[--modifier]. If we want to facilitate the easy removal of modular parts from our website/application, we need to think about the way we organise the files that make up the modules. OOCSS is environmentally-friendly advice helping you write sustainable classes through recycling styles.SMACSS is an all-encompassing CSS game plan that will coach you through all the proper techniques.Idiomatic CSS is an analytical house cleaner, organizing everything in uniform for easy recognition and peace of mind.And BEM? File organisation and naming conventions Project organisation. Naming conventions in code are ca l led Identifier Naming Convention and are well known by most software engineers for a long time. Many companies have shared the way they do it (this article from CSS-Tricks has a great compilation: CSS Style Guides). This article is an English version of an article which is originally in the Chinese language on aliyun.com and is provided for information purposes only. Without some writing rules, one can find himself with a complicated code to read and difficult to debug. This is a pretty standard CSS naming convention. This website makes no representation or warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, completeness ownership or reliability of the article or any … Well, BEM is the gold standard of CSS class naming of which all CSS class naming schemes are measured against. In CSS there we saw a push in Naming Convention establishment within the last few years with concepts like SMACSS, OOCSS and BEM which provide a … We observe that two classes share their properties border-color and color. In the real world, this could be a red button or blue button. Back in Chapter 3, I recognised the benefits that the BEM approach of naming CSS selectors gave us. We’re trying to make things easier, and save ourselves time in the future with more maintainable code. That totally depends on your (and … Naming convention for CSSF reportings This is the English version of the CSSF File Naming Convention (the original version used to be in French). If you are planning to add elements or redesign a website, these naming conventions would help you speed up the process. Even though they are valid CSS syntax, the naming conventions can be confusing to people not familiar with those methodologies. Also, in CSS, only the first level of selection is high-performance. I have created a free CSS guide to get your CSS skills blazing, immediately. It’s your call afterall. CSS naming conventions-css style naming collation. children of the overall parent component. We can consider they always find themself together for a certain number of classes. freeCodeCamp, January 17. Teams have different approaches to writing CSS selectors. We accomplish this by creating thousands of videos, articles, and interactive coding lessons - all freely available to the public. The nomenclature of BEM allows to have the majority of CSS classes at the first level. You can make a tax-deductible donation here. A good naming convention will tell you and your team. The force of the concept? A block is an independent entity which must be able to be moved without affecting its appearance or its functioning. Naming Conventions. Indeed, we remark that as soon as we have modifiers to implement, we find ourself very fastly with a long and complex class attribute. Because currently class names have no structure, aren't DRY, editing the CSS is painful with a bunch of side effects and we don't use the power of the C in CSS. Some developers use data attributes as JavaScript hooks. The DRY principle is simple to understand "Every piece of knowledge must have a single, unambiguous, authoritative representation within a system". … Learn to code — free 3,000-hour curriculum. This isn’t right. Since CSS isn’t the most elegant “language,” well-structured comments can save time when you’re trying to understand your code. An interface can include several instances of the same block. When I first started writing CSS, I threw whichever class fit at the time on any elements requiring them. I've been writing code for over three years. Even though they are valid CSS syntax, the naming conventions can be confusing to people not familiar with those methodologies. There are 3 problems that CSS naming conventions try to solve. 1. Not doing too badly, huh? Naming Conventions. As a convention, anyone who sees the js-site-navigation class name would understand that there is a relationship with that DOM element in the JavaScript code. This can be a header, a footer, a container (articles, sections ...), a menu or even a button. Each selector should be on its own line, ending in either a comma or an … Donations to freeCodeCamp go toward our education initiatives, and help pay for servers, services, and staff. Your coding standards or CSS style guide refers to the way your team has agreed on writing CSS. I've been writing code for over three years. February 17, 2016 by Jessica Lavoie. The goal is to discuss available CSS naming conventions. If you only will ever have one CSS file on the site, you can name it whatever you like. Cutting out his CSS code into many files each corresponding to a module, a view, or a page of your application is very recommended. Use flexible/relative units For maximum flexibility over the widest possible range of devices, it is a good idea to size containers, padding, etc. Learn to code for free. You may have already guessed that the B in BEM stands for ‘Block’. what type of thing a class does; where a class can be used; what (else) a class might be related to. Accessed 2019-02-05. using relative units like ems and rems, or percentages and viewport units if you want them to vary depending … CSS isn’t the prettiest ‘language,’ but it has successfully powered the styling of the web for over 20 years now. This is not always the case. 1. Teams have different approaches to writing CSS selectors. Always use the class name directly on the HTML element you want to style, even if seems to cost an extra effort. The CSS naming conventions used in BEM can also be applied to your project’s directory and file structure . BEM - Block Element ModifierBEM - Block Element Modifier is a methodology, that helps you to achieve reusable components and code sharing in the…getbem.com. One of the following is preferable: style.css standard.css default.css. This facilitates reusability of the selector and reduces the dependency to another selector. The context of an element is that of the block. One way to mitigate such bugs is to use a js-* class name to denote a relationship with the DOM element in question. As it appears clearly, a block can also contain other blocks. Spaces in complicated modifiers are replaced by dash. A collection of CSS packages and build tools are available as modules. The merits of splitting the CSS in multiple files and to increase appears mainly when someone uses a preprocessor CSS (Sass or Less). This tool intervenes on several aspects especially the improvements of the code indentation, the correction of syntax errors and the identification of places where there is a duplication of the code. The claim here is, “well, there’s a relationship with Javascript, so I use the rel attribute to denote that”. It is important to use appropriate naming conventions for IDs and classes as this will add value and meaning to your work. div:nth(3) styles are location dependent*/, /*we can reuse this category style wherever*/, PG Program in Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning , Statistics for Data Science and Business Analysis, 35 of the Best Dev Channels and Content Creators on Youtube, Introduction to Strapi : Headless CMS for Building Web Applications. It impacts how classes will be named. what type of thing a class does; where a class can be used; what (else) a … Have you succeeded at writing CSS that uses color variables in a manner agnostic to the colors they represent? It's simpler, specifically in big projects with many CSS/LESS files to have single usage variables, even though that might result … I’ll be taking a look at some … 2013. Source: Raphael Goetter (french article). A good naming convention will tell you and your team. The naming convention I follow is very simple: hyphen (-) delimited strings, with BEM-like naming … The blocks and elements have to each other have a unique name, which will be used as a CSS class; The CSS selectors don't have to use the HTML elements (not of footer div) Cascades in CSS selectors should be avoided ( not of .foo > .bar) Naming convention: Bloc: bloc-name; Element: bloc-name__element-name; Modifier : bloc-name--modifier-name We also have thousands of freeCodeCamp study groups around the world. Date Version Description 28/01/2008 0.90 Original version 04/02/2008 0.91 Reviewed version 26/02/2008 1.00 Final … So, it’s important to write a good code in others words a clean, consistent, an extensible and correct code. If you choose to use the BEM naming convention, it will become easier to see the relationship between your design components/blocks just by looking at the markup. HTML Style Guide and Coding Conventions ... Long CSS rules should be written over multiple lines: body { background-color: lightgrey; font-family: "Arial Black", Helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 16em; color: black;} Place the opening bracket on the same line as the selector; Use one space before the opening bracket ; Use two spaces of indentation; Use semicolon after each property …

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